Replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is dependent on virus-encoded proteins and numerous cellular factors. DDX3 is a wellknown host cofactor of HCV replication. In this study, we investigated the role of a DDX3-interacting protein, Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1), in the HCV life cycle. Both YB-1 and DDX3 interacted with the viral nonstructural protein NS5A. During HCV infection, YB-1 partially colocalized with NS5A and the HCV replication intermediate double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in HCVinfected Huh-7.5.1 cells. Despite sharing the same interacting partners, YB-1 participated in HCV RNA replication but was dispensable in steady-state HCV RNA replication, different from the action of DDX3. Moreover, knockdown of YB-1 in HCV-infected cells prevented infectious virus production and reduced the ratio of hyperphosphorylated (p58) to hypophosphorylated (p56) forms of NS5A, whereas DDX3 silencing did not affect the ratio of the p58 and p56 phosphoforms of NS5A. Interestingly, silencing of YB-1 severely reduced NS5A protein stability in NS5A-ectopically expressing, replicon-containing, and HCV-infected cells. Furthermore, mutations of serine 102 of YB-1 affected both YB-1-NS5A interaction and NS5A-stabilizing activity of YB-1, indicating that this Akt phosphorylation site of YB-1 plays an important role in stabilizing NS5A. Collectively, our results support a model in which the event of YB-1 phosphorylation-mediated interaction with NS5A results in stabilizing NS5A to sustain HCV RNA replication and infectious HCV production. Overall, our study may reveal a new aspect for the development of novel anti-HCV drugs.