Rationale and Objective: Gut microbiota have been targeted by alternative therapies for non-communicable diseases. We examined the gut microbiota of a healthy Taiwanese population, identified various bacterial drivers in different demographics, and compared them with dialysis patients to associate kidney disease progression with changes in gut microbiota. Study Design: This was a cross-sectional cohort study. Settings and Participants: Fecal samples were obtained from 119 healthy Taiwanese volunteers, and 16S rRNA sequencing was done on the V3-V4 regions to identify the bacterial enterotypes. Twenty-six samples from the above cohort were compared with fecal samples from 22 peritoneal dialysis and 16 hemodialysis patients to identify species-level bacterial biomarkers in the dysbiotic gut of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Results: Specific bacterial species were identified pertaining to different demographics such as gender, age, BMI, physical activity, and sleeping habits. Dialysis patients had a significant difference in gut microbiome composition compared to healthy controls. The most abundant genus identified in CKD patients was Bacteroides, and at the species level hemodialysis patients showed significant abundance in B. ovatus, B. caccae, B. uniformis, and peritoneal dialysis patients showed higher abundance in Blautia producta (p ≤ 0.05) than the control group. Pathways pertaining to the production of uremic toxins were enriched in CKD patients. The abundance of the bacterial species depended on the type of dialysis treatment. Conclusion: This study characterizes the healthy gut microbiome of a Taiwanese population in terms of various demographics. In a case-control examination, the results showed the alteration in gut microbiota in CKD patients corresponding to different dialysis treatments. Also, this study identified the bacterial species abundant in CKD patients and their possible role in complicating the patients’ condition.