Self-assembled nanocomposites with a high interface-to-volume ratio offer an opportunity to overcome limitations in current technology, where intriguing transport behaviors can be tailored by the choice of proper interactions of constituents. Here we integrated metallic perovskite oxide SrRuO 3 -wurzite semiconductor ZnO nanocomposites to investigate the room-temperature metal-insulator transition and its effect on photoresponse. We demonstrate that the band structure at the interface can be tuned by controlling the interface-to-volume ratio of the nanocomposites. Photoinduced carrier injection driven by visible light was detected across the nanocomposites. This work shows the charge interaction of the vertically integrated multiheterostructures by incorporating a controllable interface-to-volume ratio, which is essential for optimization of the design and functionality of electronic devices.