Summary: Treatment persistence was higher among the patients who initially received an anti-osteoporosis medication (AOM) with a long-dose-interval. Purpose: With long-dose-interval anti-osteoporosis medications (AOMs) available for osteoporosis management, it is important to evaluate persistence of any AOM as long as it is continuously used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the treatment pattern and persistence of AOMs, allowing for medication switch. Methods: This study was an observational retrospective cohort study using Taiwan’s National Health Insurance claims data. We selected patients who first initiated an AOM between January 1, 2013, and June 30, 2016. AOM therapy included alendronate, raloxifene, teriparatide, denosumab, zoledronate, and ibandronate; the latter three were categorized as long-dose-interval medications. Persistence was defined as continual prescription of any AOM at a given time point with a grace period of 45 days within which to obtain prescription refill. The competing risk model was used to examine the factors affecting patients switching their initial AOM. Results: During the study period, 126,539 patients with mean age of 75 years met the inclusion criteria; 85% were female. For initial AOM, 43.3%, 25.6%, 14.6%, 9.3%, 5.3%, and 1.9% of the patients received alendronate, denosumab, raloxifene, zoledronate, ibandronate, and teriparatide, respectively. During a mean 36-month follow-up, 29.6% of the patients who received at least two AOM pharmacy claims throughout the study period have ever switched their initial medication. Long-dose-interval medications, mainly denosumab and zoledronate, were the preferred choice for medication switch. Treatment persistence was higher in patients who initiated with long-dose-interval AOMs. Conclusion: The real-world data reveal long-dose-interval therapy as an initial treatment or at the first switch stage may improve management of persistent AOM treatment.