Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most prevalent neoplasms worldwide. It is well recognized that environmental challenges such as smoking, viral infection and alcohol consumption are key factors underlying HNSCC pathogenesis. Other than major clinical interventions (e.g., surgical resection, chemical and radiotherapy) that have been routinely practiced over years, adjuvant anticancer agents from Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM) are proposed, either alone or together with conventional therapies, to be experimentally effective for improving treatment efficacy in different cancers including HNSCCs. At a cellular and molecular basis, THM extracts could modulate different malignant indices via distinct signaling pathways and provide better control in HNSCC malignancy and its clinical complications such as radiotherapy-induced xerostomia/oral mucositis. In this article, we aim to systemically review the impacts of THM in regulating HNSCC tumorous identities and its potential perspective for clinical use.