Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to propose important determinants of knowledge sharing, including co-worker congruence, received task interdependence, organizational commitment and participative decision-making. Exchange ideology is considered a moderator in this study. Design/methodology/ approach - A two-step procedure of structural equation modeling is applied for data analysis. The moderating effects are simultaneously examined using data from employees across different industries. Findings - This study suggests the influence of co-worker congruence on knowledge sharing is stronger for individuals with low exchange ideology than for those with high exchange ideology, while the influence of received task interdependence on knowledge sharing is stronger for individuals with high exchange ideology than for those with low exchange ideology. The influence of participative decision-making on knowledge sharing is stronger for individuals with high exchange ideology than for those with low exchange ideology. Research limitations/implications - The limitations may relate to the possibility of a common method bias and causal ordering between knowledge and its determinants. Practical implications - Management who wish to increase the incentive to share knowledge should first establish a harmonious atmosphere that fosters interpersonal congruence among employees and encourages employees to work closely together. A culture that arouses employees' organizational commitment and encourages employees to participate in decision-making is most likely to increase willingness to share knowledge. Finally, the implications for moderating effects of exchange ideology are also provided. Originality/value - This paper clarifies the moderating impacts of exchange ideology and guide management to design a variety of strategies for different staffs and thus obtain successful knowledge sharing in an organization.