The three-dimensional weakly supervised deep learning algorithm for traumatic splenic injury detection and sequential localization: an experimental study

Chi Tung Cheng, Hou Shian Lin, Chih Po Hsu, Huan Wu Chen, Jen Fu Huang, Chih Yuan Fu, Chi Hsun Hsieh, Chun Nan Yeh, I. Fang Chung, Chien Hung Liao

研究成果: Article同行評審

3 引文 斯高帕斯(Scopus)

摘要

BACKGROUND: Splenic injury is the most common solid visceral injury in blunt abdominal trauma, and high-resolution abdominal computed tomography (CT) can adequately detect the injury. However, these lethal injuries sometimes have been overlooked in current practice. Deep learning (DL) algorithms have proven their capabilities in detecting abnormal findings in medical images. The aim of this study is to develop a three-dimensional, weakly supervised DL algorithm for detecting splenic injury on abdominal CT using a sequential localization and classification approach. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The dataset was collected in a tertiary trauma center on 600 patients who underwent abdominal CT between 2008 and 2018, half of whom had splenic injuries. The images were split into development and test datasets at a 4 : 1 ratio. A two-step DL algorithm, including localization and classification models, was constructed to identify the splenic injury. Model performance was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Grad-CAM (Gradient-weighted Class Activation Mapping) heatmaps from the test set were visually assessed. To validate the algorithm, we also collected images from another hospital to serve as external validation data. RESULTS: A total of 480 patients, 50% of whom had spleen injuries, were included in the development dataset, and the rest were included in the test dataset. All patients underwent contrast-enhanced abdominal CT in the emergency room. The automatic two-step EfficientNet model detected splenic injury with an AUROC of 0.901 (95% CI: 0.836-0.953). At the maximum Youden index, the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 0.88, 0.81, 0.92, 0.91, and 0.83, respectively. The heatmap identified 96.3% of splenic injury sites in true positive cases. The algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 0.92 for detecting trauma in the external validation cohort, with an acceptable accuracy of 0.80. CONCLUSIONS: The DL model can identify splenic injury on CT, and further application in trauma scenarios is possible.

原文English
頁(從 - 到)1115-1124
頁數10
期刊International Journal of Surgery
109
發行號5
DOIs
出版狀態Published - 1 5月 2023

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