Background: Alcohol consumption is known to increase the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). Whether the genotypes of alcohol-metabolizing genes (alcohol dehydrogenase [ADH1B]) are associated with the risk of AF recurrence after catheter ablation remains unclear. Methods and results: The ADH1B genotypes of 281 patients who received catheter ablation for AF were examined. We followed this group of patients to monitor their AF recurrence. Alcohol consumption levels of this cohort were evaluated before and after catheter ablation. There was no difference in the underlying diseases presented by the patients with different ADH1B genotypes. Regardless of the ADH1B genotypes, the amount of alcohol consumption was the only factor associated with left atrial dilatation. The ADH1B*2 alleles (hazard ratio: ADH1B*1/*2 vs *1/*1: 2.64; ADH1B*2/*2 vs *1/*1: 1.80, P = 0.02) and the levels of alcohol consumption were independently associated with AF recurrence in the patients with paroxysmal AF after catheter ablation. ADH1B polymorphisms were not associated with AF recurrence in the patients with nonparoxysmal AF. We also found that the association of increased AF recurrence with alcohol consumption and the ADH1B genotypes cannot be explained by mechanisms of systemic inflammation. Conclusions: ADH1B*2/*2 genotype and amount of alcohol consumption increase the risk of AF recurrence after catheter ablation.