Whether there are subsequent changes of metabolic profiles and microbiota status after partial colectomy remains unknown. We evaluated and compared long-term effects of microbiota status and metabolic profiles in early colorectal cancer (CRC) patients after curative colectomy to the controls. In this cross-sectional study, we analyzed metabolic syndrome occurrence in 165 patients after curative partial colectomy with right hemicolectomy (RH) or low anterior resection (LAR) and 333 age-sex matched controls. Fecal samples from some of those with RH, LAR, and controls were analyzed by next-generation sequencing method. The occurrences of metabolic syndrome were significantly higher in patients after RH, but not LAR, when compared with the controls over the long term (> 5 years) follow- up (P = 0.020). Compared with control group, RH group showed lower bacterial diversity (P = 0.007), whereas LAR group showed significantly higher bacterial diversity at the genera level (P = 0.016). Compared with the control group, the principal component analysis revealed significant differences in bacterial genera abundance after RH and LAR (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio was significantly lower in the RH group than the control group (22.0% versus 49.4%, P < 0.05). In conclusion, early CRC patients after RH but not LAR were associated with a higher occurrence of metabolic syndrome than the controls during long-term follow-up. In parallel with metabolic change, patients with RH showed dysbiosis with a tendency to decreased richness and a significant decrease in the diversity of gut microbiota.