Previous studies have suggested an association between air pollution and lung disease. However, few studies have explored the relationship between chronic lung diseases classified by lung function and environmental parameters. This study aimed to comprehensively investigate the relationship between chronic lung diseases, air pollution, meteorological factors, and anthropomet-ric indices. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the Taiwan Biobank and the Taiwan Air Quality Monitoring Database. A total of 2889 participants were included. We found a V/U-shaped relationship between temperature and air pollutants, with significant effects at both high and low temperatures. In addition, at lower temperatures (<24.6 °C), air pollutants including carbon monoxide (CO) (adjusted OR (aOR):1.78/Log 1 ppb, 95% CI 0.98–3.25; aOR:5.35/Log 1 ppb, 95% CI 2.88– 9.94), nitrogen monoxide (NO) (aOR:1.05/ppm, 95% CI 1.01–1.09; aOR:1.11/ppm, 95% CI 1.07–1.15), nitrogen oxides (NOx) (aOR:1.02/ppm, 95% CI 1.00–1.05; aOR:1.06/ppm, 95% CI 1.04–1.08), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) (aOR:1.29/ppm, 95% CI 1.01–1.65; aOR:1.77/ppm, 95% CI 1.36–2.30) were associated with restrictive and mixed lung diseases, respectively. Exposure to CO, NO, NO2, NOx and SO2 significantly affected obstructive and mixed lung disease in southern Taiwan. In conclusion, temperature and air pollution should be considered together when evaluating the impact on chronic lung diseases.