Background: Clinically, metastatic rectal cancer has been considered a subset of left-sided colon cancer. However, heterogeneity has been proposed to exist between high and middle/low rectal cancers. We aimed to examine the efficacy of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) treatment for middle/low rectal and left-sided colon cancers. Methods: This study enrolled 609 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who were treated with anti-EGFR therapy. They were divided into groups based on primary tumour locations: the right-sided colon, the left-sided colon or the middle/low rectum. The efficacy of first-line and non-first-line anti-EGFR treatment was analysed. Genomic differences in colorectal cancer data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were investigated and visualised with OncoPrint and a clustered heatmap. Results: On first-line anti-EGFR treatment, patients with middle/low rectal tumours had significantly lower progression-free survival, overall survival, and overall response rates (6.8 months, 27.8 months and 43%, respectively) than those with left-sided colon cancer (10.1 months, 38.3 months and 66%, respectively). Similar outcomes were also identified on non-first-line anti-EGFR treatment. In TCGA analysis, rectal tumours displayed genetic heterogeneity and shared features with both left- and right-sided colon cancer. Conclusions: Anti-EGFR treatment has lower efficacy in metastatic middle/low rectal cancer than in left-sided colon cancer.