Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) occurring in a 66-year-old male patient with early stage primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) was successfully treated by radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy. He was diagnosed with PBC based on the findings of pruritus, elevated serum alkaline phosphate level and positive serum antimitochondrial antibody in 2005. The serologic tests for hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody and hepatitis C virus antibody were all negative. But antibody against hepatitis B core antigen was positive. Abdominal ultrasonography and dynamic computed tomography revealed 1 hypervascular tumor, 2.6 cm in diameter, in segment V of the liver in 2007. Liver biopsy showed a moderately differentiated HCC. Non-tumorous liver was compatible with Scheuer's classification of stage II PBC. The tumor was successfully treated by RFA. This case report demonstrates that HCC can arise from precirrhotic PBC and can be successfully treated by RFA. Regular surveillance for HCC is warranted for all patients with PBC, irrespective of stage.