Thy-1 is highly expressed in the mammalian nervous system. Our previous study showed that addition of anti-Thy-1 antibody to cultured dorsal root ganglionic (DRG) neurons promotes neurite outgrowth. In this study, we identified a novel signaling pathway mediating this event. Treatment with function-blocking anti-Thy-1 antibodies enhanced neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons in terms of total neurite length, longest neurite length, and total neurite branching points. To elucidate the possible signal transduction pathway involved, activation of kinases was evaluated by Western blotting. Transient phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) and mitogen-activated kinase kinase (MEK) was induced after 15 min of anti-Thy-1 antibody treatment. Pretreatment with a PKA inhibitor (PKI) or an MEK inhibitor, PD98059, significantly decreased the neurite outgrowth response triggered by anti-Thy-1 antibody, indicating the involvement of both kinases. In addition, anti-Thy-1 antibody treatment also induced transient phosphorylation of cyclic AMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) and this effect was also blocked by a PKI or PD98059. Furthermore, the fact that PKI abolished anti-Thy-1 antibody-induced MEK phosphorylation showed that PKA acts upstream of the MEK-CREB cascade. In summary, the PKA-MEK-CREB pathway is a new pathway involved in the neurite outgrowth-promoting effect of anti-Thy-1 antibody.