This article aims to test the hypothesis that the risk of female genital tract related cancer (gynecological cancer: GC) or breast cancer (BC) of women with chronic kidney disease (CKD) might be different from that of those women without CKD. A nationwide 17-year historic cohort study using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan and the Registry for Catastrophic Illness Patients was conducted. A total of 3045 women with a diagnosis of CKD from 1996 to 2013 and 3045 multivariable-matched controls (1:1) were selected. We used Cox regression, and computed hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) to determine the risk of GC or BC in women. The GC incidence rates (IRs, per 10,000 person-years) of the CKD and non-CKD women were 11.02 and 19.09, respectively, contributing to a significantly decreased risk of GCs (crude HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.390.81; adjusted HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.300.65) in the CKD women. The GC IR was relatively constant in the CKD women among the different age categories (IR ranged from 8.10 to 12.29). On contrast, the non-CKD women had a progressive and continuous increase of GC IR in the advanced age, which was more apparent at age ?50 years (IR 17.16 for 50-59; IR 23.05 for 60-69; and IR 31.62 for ?70, respectively), contributing to the lower risk of GC in the CKD women than that in the non-CKD women. There was no difference of BC incidence between women with and without CKD. The findings of the lower risk of GCs in the CKD women in Taiwan are worthy of further evaluation.