Continued risk assessment by evaluating cardiac biomarkers in healthy and unhealthy individuals can lower the mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this research, we have developed a hand-held biosensor system to rapidly screen for brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) from a single drop of whole blood. The sensor methodology is based on extended gate design of electrical double layer (EDL) field effect transistor (FET), that can directly detect BNP in whole blood, without extensive sample pre-treatments, thereby eliminating the limitations of charge screening in high ionic strength solutions. A simple sensor array chip is fabricated to integrate with the MOSFET sensor system. Sensing characteristics are elucidated using purified BNP samples in 1 × PBS (with 4% BSA), spiked BNP samples in whole blood and clinical whole blood samples. The blood cells can be gravitationally separated without the use of any external actuation. The sensor exhibits very high sensitivity over wide dynamic range of detection. The sensing characteristics are not adversely affected by the presence of background proteins or blood cells, even without gravitational blood cell separation. Thus, the biosensor system can allow users to perform rapid whole blood diagnostics with minimal user protocols, in 5 min. The features of high sensitivity, cost-effectiveness and convenience of usage empower this technology to revolutionize the mobile diagnostics and healthcare industry.