Recently, perovskite-based nanomaterials are utilized in diverse sustainable applications. Their unique structural characteristics allow researchers to explore functionalities towards diverse directions, such as solar cells, light emitting devices, transistors, sensors, etc. Many perovskite nanomaterial-based devices have been demonstrated with extraordinary sensing performance to various chemical and biological species in both solid and solution states. In particular, perovskite nanomaterials are capable of detecting small molecules such as O-2, NO2, CO2, etc. This review elaborates the sensing applications of those perovskite materials with diverse cations, dopants and composites. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms and electron transport properties, which are important for understanding those sensor performances, will be discussed. Their synthetic tactics, structural information, modifications and real time sensing applications are provided to promote such perovskite nanomaterials-based molecular designs. Lastly, we summarize the perspectives and provide feasible guidelines for future developing of novel perovskite nanostructure-based chemo- and biosensors with real time demonstration.