The data of recommendation systems typically only contain the purchased item as positive data and other un-purchased items as unlabeled data. To train a good recommendation model, in addition to the known positive information, we also need high-quality negative information. Capturing negative signals in positive and unlabeled data is challenging for recommendation systems. Most studies have used specific data and proposed negative sampling methods suitable to the data characteristics. Existing negative sampling strategies cannot automatically select suitable approaches for different data. However, this one-size-fits-all strategy often makes potential positive samples considered as negative, or truly negative samples considered as potential positive samples and recommend to users. In this way, it will not only turn down the recommendation result, but even also have an adverse effect. Accordingly, we propose a novel negative sampling model, Reinforced PU-learning with Hybrid Negative Sampling Strategies for Recommendation (RHNSR), which can combine multiple sampling strategies and dynamically adjust the proportions used by different sampling strategies. In addition, ensemble learning, which integrates various model sampling strategies for obtaining an improved solution, was applied to RHNSR. Extensive experiments were conducted on three real-world recommendation datasets, and the experimental results indicated that the proposed model significantly outperformed state-of-the-art baseline models and revealed significant improvements in precision and hit ratio (49.02% and 37.41%, respectively).
|ACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology
|Published - 8 5月 2023