We demonstrate the detection of C-creative protein (CRP) from whole blood samples without sample pretreatment by using a lab-on-a-chip system consisting of a microfluidic chip and a label-free biosensor. The microfluidic chip includes an array of microposts for filtering blood cells and allows only plasma to flow through and reach the guided-mode resonance (GMR) biosensor for real-time monitoring. The developed GMR sensor can achieve a bulk sensitivity of 186 nm RIU-1, which supports a limit of detection of 3.2 ng mL-1 for recombinant CRP spiked in human serum. The results are comparable with those obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, we demonstrate the efficacy of filtration of blood cells using microposts and simultaneous measurement of CRP concentration using a GMR sensor by using whole blood and plasma samples.