This study investigated the abnormal pupillary light reflex in patients with early diabetes mellitus (DM) without retinopathy by using a custom-made noninvasive portable pupilometer. The pupilometer recorded and analyzed the pupillary light reflex. Two light intensities, 0.2 cd and 1.2 cd, and four wavelengths of stimulus light - white (400 nm-800 nm), red (640 ± 5 nm), green (534 ± 5 nm), and blue (470 ± 5 nm) - were used to stimulate the pupil for 10 ms. The pupillary response was recorded for 15 s. A total of 40 healthy people and 40 people with DM without retinopathy participated in the experiment at the National Taiwan University Hospital. The mean and standard deviation of DM duration were 4.5 years and 3.9 years. Of the 16 indices, the duration that pupil restores from its minimum size to half of its resting size (DRP), maximum pupil restoration velocity (MRV), and average restoration velocity (ARV) exhibited the most significant differences between the healthy people and those with DM. Compared with healthy participants, DRP was 16.33% higher, and MRV and ARV were 17.45% and 4.58% lower, respectively, in those with DM. This might be attributable to the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) controlling the dilator muscle during the dark-adapted period and relaxing the pupil; the SNS had few degenerated nerve endings in people with DM. The three aforementioned indices might be used to evaluate the severity of autonomic neuropathy in early DM.