Vascular diseases are commonly observed in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). We aim to investigate the differences in the risk for arteriovenous fistula or graft (AVF/AVG) dysfunction in haemodialysis (HD) patients with and without ADPKD. 557 ADPKD and 1671 non-ADPKD patients were enrolled in the study after propensity score matching. The primary outcome measure is the incidence rate of AVF/AVG dysfunction. The incidence rates and risks of AVF/AVG dysfunction (per 100 person-years) for ADPKD and non-ADPKD patients were (1) 38.83 and 48.99 [SHR = 0.79, P = 0.137], respectively, for within 90 days, (2) 45.85 and 51.31 [SHR = 0.90, P = 0.300], respectively, for within 180 days, (3) 44.42 and 41.40 [SHR = 1.08, P = 0.361], respectively, for within the first year, (4) 27.38 and 24.69 [SHR = 1.09, P = 0.168], respectively, for within 5 years, (5) 17.35 and 13.80 [SHR = 1.19, P = 0.045], respectively, for between the 1st and 10th year, and (6) 25.40 and 21.22 [SHR = 1.14, P = 0.031], respectively, for all periods. ADPKD patients had lower incidence rates of AVF/AVG dysfunction within the first 180 days than non-ADPKD patients, but presented a higher incidence rate after 1 year of AVF/AVG creation and onwards.