Objective: Resection is the best treatment for patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), Patterns of disease recurrence after complete resection in stage I NSCLC have not been well demonstrated, The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic predictors of post-recurrence survival in patients with resected stage I NSCLC with local recurrence. Methods: The clinicopathological characteristics of 123 patients with local recurrence after complete resection of stage I NSCLC in Taipei Veterans General Hospital between 1980 and 2000 were retrospectively reviewed. Post-recurrence survival and their predictors were analysed. Results: The patterns of local recurrence included local only in 74 (60.2%) and both local and distant in 49 (39.8%) patients, The 1 and 2 year post-recurrence survival rates for the 74 patients with local only recurrence were 48.7% and 17.6%, respectively. Tumour size (p = 0.033) and treatment for initial recurrence (p<0.001) were significant predictors for post-recurrence survival in 74 patients with local only recurrence in univariate analyses, The hazard of death was greater in patients with larger tumour size. Treatment for initial recurrence (p = 0.001) was still a significant prognostic indicator in multivariate analyses. Patients who underwent reoperation after local recurrence survived longer than those who received chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy and those that received no treatment. Conclusions: Treatment for initial recurrence is a prognostic predictor for post-recurrence survival in resected stage I NSCLC with local recurrence, Complete surgical resection should be considered in selected candidates with resectable local recurrent disease.