Studies using polymeric scaffolds for various biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, implants and medical substitutes, and drug delivery systems, have attempted to identify suitable material for tissue regeneration. This study aimed to investigate the biocompatibility and effectiveness of a gelatin scaffold seeded with human adipose stem cells (hASCs), including physical characteristics, multilineage differentiation in vitro, and osteogenic potential, in a rat model of a calvarial bone defect and to optimize its design. This functionalized scaffold comprised gelatin-hASCs layers to improve their efficacy in various biomedical applications. The gelatin scaffold exhibited excellent biocompatibility in vitro after two weeks of implantation. Furthermore, the gelatin scaffold supported and specifically regulated the proliferation and osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of hASCs, respectively. After 12 weeks of implantation, upon treatment with the gelatin-hASCs scaffold, the calvarial bone harboring the critical defect regenerated better and displayed greater osteogenic potential without any damage to the surrounding tissues compared to the untreated bone defect. These findings suggest that the present gelatin scaffold is a good potential carrier for stem cells in various tissue engineering applications.