The impact of an initial skeletal-related event (SRE) and denosumab adjuvant treatment on the survival outcome of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with bone metastasis remains unclear. This retrospective study included 400 metastatic EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients. Among 190 bone metastasis patients, 61 had initial SREs and 73 received denosumab. We analyzed patient characteristics, SRE-free survival (SRE-FS), and overall survival (OS). In metastatic EGFR-mutated NSCLC, bone metastasis was associated with a poorer OS (21.7 vs. 33.0 months; p < 0.001). Bone metastasis patients with initial SREs at diagnosis had an even shorter OS, compared with those without initial SRE (15.4 vs. 23.6 months; p = 0.026). Denosumab reduced SRE incidence (hazard ratio (HR) 0.57 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34–0.94; p = 0.027) and was associated with improved OS (26.6 vs. 20.1 months; p = 0.015). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that denosumab treatment was correlated with a lower incidence of SRE (HR 0.61 (95% CI 0.37–0.98); p = 0.042) and better OS (HR 0.60 (95% CI 0.41–0.88); p = 0.008). In subgroup analyses, denosumab prolonged SRE-FS (HR 0.36 (95% CI 0.19–0.79); p = 0.009) in patients without initial SREs and was related to a better OS (25.3 vs. 12.9 months; p = 0.016) in patients with initial or pre-existing SREs. Osteonecrosis of the jaw was diagnosed in two patients (2.74%) receiving denosumab. Our study confirmed the association between initial SREs and a worse outcome and provided novel evidence of the survival benefit of denosumab for EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients with bone metastasis.