Novel therapeutics is urgently needed to prevent cancer-related deaths. MicroRNAs that act as tumor suppressors have been recognized as a next-generation tumor therapy, and the restoration of tumor-suppressive microRNAs using microRNA replacements or mimics may be a less toxic, more effective strategy due to fewer off-target effects. Here, we designed the novel multifunctional oligonucleotide nanocarrier complex composed of a tumor-targeting aptamer sequence specific to mucin 1 (MUC1), poly-cytosine region for fluorescent silver nanocluster (AgNC) synthesis, and complimentary sequence for microRNA miR-34a loading. MiR-34a was employed because of its therapeutic effect of inhibiting oncogene expression and inducing apoptosis in carcinomas. By monitoring the intrinsic fluorescence of AgNC, it was clearly shown that the constructed complex (MUC1-AgNCm-miR-34a) enters MCF-7 cells. To evaluate the efficacy of this nanocarrier for microRNA delivery, we investigated the gene and protein expression levels of downstream miR-34a targets (BCL-2, CDK6, and CCND1) by quantitative PCR and western blotting, respectively, and the results indicated their effective inhibition by miR-34a. This novel multifunctional AgNC-based nanocarrier can aid in improving the efficacy of breast cancer theranostics.