The performance enhancement of integrated circuits relying on dimension scaling (i.e., following Moore’s Law) is more and more challenging owing to the physical limit of Si materials. Monolithic three-dimensional (M3D) integration has been considered as a powerful scheme to further boost up the system performance. Two-dimensional (2D) materials such as MoS2 are potential building blocks for constructing upper-tier transistors owing to their high mobility, atomic thickness, and back-end-of-line (BEOL) compatible processes. The concept to integrate 2D material-based devices with Si field-effect transistor (FET) is technologically important but the compatibility is yet to be experimentally demonstrated. Here, we successfully integrated an n-type monolayer MoS2 FET on a p-type Si fin-shaped FET with 20 nm fin width via an M3D integration technique to form a complementary inverter. The integration was enabled by deliberately adopting industrially matured techniques, such as chemical mechanical planarization and e-beam evaporation, to ensure its compatibility with the existing 3D integrated circuit process and the semiconductor industry in general. The 2D FET is fabricated using low-temperature sequential processes to avoid the degradation of lower-tier Si devices. The MoS2 n-FETs and Si p-FinFETs display symmetrical transfer characteristics and the resulting 3D complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor inverter show a voltage transfer characteristic with a maximum gain of ~38. This work clearly proves the integration compatibility of 2D materials with Si-based devices, encouraging the further development of monolithic 3D integrated circuits.