Lung carcinoma (LC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and accounted for the most cancer-related mortality worldwide in 2018. Based on the type of cells from which it originates, LC is commonly classified into non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancers (SCLC). NSCLC account for the majority of LC and can be further categories into adenocarcinoma, large cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Accurate classification of LC is critical for its adequate treatment and therapeutic outcome. Since NSCLC express more epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with activation mutations, targeted therapy EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been considered as primary option of NSCLC patients with activation EGFR mutation. In this review, we present the genetic alterations, reported mutations in EGFR, and TKIs treatment in NSCLC patients with an emphasis on the downstream signaling pathways in NSCLC progression. Among the signaling pathways identified, mitogen activation protein kinase (MAPK), known also as extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (Erk) pathway, is the most investigated among the related pathways. EGFR activation leads to the autophosphorylation of its kinase domain and subsequent activation of Ras, phosphorylation of Raf and MEK1/2, and the activation of ERK1/2. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt is another signal pathway that regulates cell cycle and has been linked to NSCLC progression. Currently, three generations of EGFR TKIs have been developed as a first-line treatment of NSCLC patients with EGFR activation and mutation in which these treatment options will be further discussed in this review. The Supplementary Appendix for this article is available at http://links.lww.com/JCMA/A138.