Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves chronic inflammation, loss of epithelial integrity, and gastrointestinal microbiota dysbiosis, resulting in the development of a colon cancer known as colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). In this study, we evaluated the effects of corylin in a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. The results showed corylin could improved the survival rate and colon length, maintained body weight, and ameliorated the inflammatory response in the colon. Then, we further identified the possible antitumor effects after 30-day treatment of corylin on an azoxymethane (AOM)/DSS-induced CAC mouse model. Biomarkers associated with inflammation, the colon tissue barrier, macrophage polarization (CD11c, CCR7, CD163, and CD206), and microbiota dysbiosis were monitored in the AOM/DSS group versus corylin groups. Corylin downregulated pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-6) mRNA expression and inflammatory signaling-associated markers (TLR4, MyD88, AP-1, CD11b, and F4/80). In addition, a colon barrier experiment revealed that epithelial cell proliferation of the mucus layer (Lgr5, Cyclin D1, and Olfm4) was downregulated and tight junction proteins (claudin-1 and ZO-1) were upregulated. Furthermore, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio changed with corylin interven-tion, and the microbial diversity and community richness of the AOM/DSS mice were improved by corylin. The comparative analysis of gut microbiota revealed that Bacteroidetes, Patescibacteria, Candidatus Saccharimonas, Erysipelatoclostridium, and Enterorhabdus were significantly increased but Firmicutes, Turicibacter, Romboutsia, and Blautia decreased after corylin treatment. Altogether, corylin administration showed cancer-ameliorating effects by reducing the risk of colitis-associated colon cancer via regulation of inflammation, carcinogenesis, and compositional change of gut microbiota. Therefore, corylin could be a novel, potential health-protective, natural agent against CAC.