A large two-dimensional (2D) topological defect array in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) shows a translucent watery hazy texture. The haze is a composition of three optical phenomena: scattering of light, lens imaging and diffraction. The scattering of light causes the milky haze. Vertically aligned NLC cells with pixel electrodes were fabricated to produce the crowded irregular defects. The key parameters are the electrode shape (pad or annulus), the array structure (square or hexagonal) and the pixel size (from (Formula presented.) to (Formula presented.)). Location and topological charge of the defects are identified under a polarised optical microscope. 2D Fourier transform of the defect distribution gives the spatial frequency spectrum, which is the diffraction pattern of light through the defects. Large pad electrodes produce ordered defects and significant diffraction. Crowded irregular defects render the milky translucent haze and a continuous spatial spectrum. The traditional haze measurement is not able to distinguish the scattered and diffracted light. The spatial spectrum can accurately describe the appearance perceived by the viewers. Small annulus electrodes in a hexagonal array produce the messiest defects, the haziest texture and the most comfortable visual experience among the others.
|出版狀態||Accepted/In press - 2023|