Neonatal pancreatic cell clusters (NPCCs) are potential tissues for the treatment of diabetes. Different from adult cells, they continuously proliferate and differentiate after transplantation. In this study, we utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect and monitor implanted NPCCs. NPCCs were isolated from one-day-old neonatal pigs, cultured for three days, and then incubated overnight with the contrast agent chitosan-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide (CSPIO) nanoparti-cles. In vitro, Prussian blue staining and MR scans of CSPIO-labeled NPCCs were performed. In vivo, we transplanted 2000 CSPIO-labeled NPCCs under the kidney capsule of nondiabetic nude mice. Recipients were scanned with 7.0T MRI. Grafts were removed for histology with insulin and Prussian blue staining. After being incubated overnight with CSPIO, NPCCs showed positive iron staining and appeared as dark spots on MR scans. After transplantation of CSPIO-labeled NPCCs, persistent hypointense areas were observed at recipients’ implant sites for up to 54 days. Moreover, histology showed colocalization of the insulin and iron staining in 15-, 51-and 55-day NPCC grafts. Our results indicate that transplanted NPCCs survived and differentiated to β cells after transplantation, and that MRI is a useful tool for the detection and monitoring of CSPIO-labeled NPCC grafts.