Electron-doped SrTiO3 has been attracting attention as oxide thermoelectric materials, which can convert wasted heat into electricity. The power factor of the electron-doped SrTiO3, including SrTiO3-LaTiO3 and SrTiO3-SrNbO3 solid solutions, has been clarified. However, their thermal conductivity (κ) has not been clearly identified thus far. Only a high κ (>12 W m−1 K−1) has been assumed from the electron contribution based on Wiedemann–Franz law. Here, we show that the κ of the electron-doped SrTiO3 is lower than the assumed κ, and its highest ZT exceeded 0.1 at room temperature. The κ slightly decreased with the carrier concentration (n) when n is below 4 × 1021 cm−3. In the case of SrTiO3-SrNbO3 solid solutions, an upturn in κ was observed when n exceeds 4 × 1021 cm−3 due to the contribution of conduction electron to the κ. On the other hand, κ decreased in the case of SrTiO3-LaTiO3 solid solutions probably due to the lattice distortion, which scatters both electrons and phonons. The highest ZT was 0.11 around n = 1 × 1021 cm−3. These findings would be useful for the future design of electron-doped SrTiO3-based thermoelectric materials.