Thermal management has become more critical as semiconductor devices are miniaturized. In metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors, the problem is the reduction in electron mobility in the channel layer owing to the temperature rise caused by heat generation near the channel-drain region. Focusing on the mean free paths of phonons and electrons in Si, nanostructures of a few 10 nm may only hinder heat propagation without affecting electron transportation. Therefore, inserting nanostructures into the channel layer may prevent a temperature rise and maintain a higher electron mobility. To discuss the relationship between the spacing between the nanopillars (NPs) and the heat generation and carrier behavior of the Si-NP/SiGe composite film, samples with NP spacings of 13, 27, or 47 nm were prepared. We previously confirmed that the thermal conductivity of the Si-NP/SiGe composite film decreased as NP spacing narrowed. The NPs scattered phonon propagation and suppressed heat propagation. However, carrier transport properties such as electrical conductivity, carrier mobility, and carrier lifetime have never been discussed. The laser heterodyne photothermal displacement method was used to examine the effect of nanostructures on carrier mobility and carrier lifetime of Si-NP/SiGe composite films. We observed that the carrier lifetime became longer when the NP spacing was comparable to the electron mean-free path of approximately 27 nm.