Background/Purpose: To investigate the knowledge and learning ability of glaucoma patients regarding their anti-glaucoma topical medications. Methods: Patients on regular follow-up at the Glaucoma Clinic at Hsin-Chu General Hospital were recruited. After detailed ocular examinations, the participants were asked to recall and identify their glaucoma eye drops. The same test was repeated 3 months later. The results of both tests, the learning ability of patients regarding their glaucoma drugs, and the relationship between learning ability and demographic variables were evaluated. Results: Two hundred eighty-seven glaucoma patients participated in this study. Of the study population, 25.8% and 57.1% could recall their topical mediation at the first and second tests, whereas 72.1% and 88.5% could identify their prescribed eye drops at the first and second tests, respectively. Approximately 34% of the participants showed improved knowledge at the repeat test, whereas 40% of the participants showed no improvement. Participants with a better learning ability were more likely to be younger, with a higher level of education, and with less visual field impairment. Conclusion: The knowledge of glaucoma patients regarding their prescribed medication was deficient in Taiwan. Physician effort could improve knowledge on the prescribed drugs. Patient-centered education should be considered, targeting elderly individuals, illiterate individuals, and those with loss of visual function to increase compliance with glaucoma medication.