Joule heating and electroosmotic flow in cellular micro/nano electroporation

Junjie Pan, Xinyu Wang, Chi Ling Chiang, Yifan Ma, Junao Cheng, Paul Bertani, Wu Lu*, L. James Lee*


研究成果: Article同行評審

2 引文 斯高帕斯(Scopus)


Localized micro/nano-electroporation (MEP/NEP) shows tremendous potential in cell transfection with high cell viability, precise dose control, and good transfection efficacy. In MEP/NEP, micro or nanochannels are used to tailor the electric field distribution. Cells are positioned tightly by a micron or nanochannel, and the cargoes are delivered into the cell via the channel by electrophoresis (EP). Such confined geometries with micro and nanochannels are also widely used in sorting, isolation, and condensing of biomolecules and cells. Theoretical studies on the electrokinetic phenomena in these applications have been well established. However, for MEP/NEP applications, electrokinetic phenomena and their impact on the cell transfection efficiency and cell survival rate have not been studied comprehensively. In this work, we reveal the coupling between electric field, Joule heating, electroosmosis (EO), and EP in MEP/NEP at different channel sizes. A microfluidic biochip is used to investigate the electrokinetic phenomena in MEP/NEP on a single cell level. Bubble formation is observed at a threshold voltage due to Joule heating. The bubble is pushed to the cargo side due to EO and grows at the outlet of the nanochannel. As the voltage increases, the cargo transport efficiency decreases due to more intense EO, particularly for plasmid DNAs (3.5 kbp) with a low EP mobility. An ‘electroporation zone’ is defined for NEP/MEP systems with different channel sizes to avoid bubble formation and excessive EO velocity that may reduce the cargo delivery efficiency.

頁(從 - 到)819-831
期刊Lab on a Chip
出版狀態Published - 21 12月 2023


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