TY - CHAP

T1 - Introduction of Frequency Synthesizer

AU - Hung, Chung Chih

AU - Wang, Shih Hsing

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

PY - 2022

Y1 - 2022

N2 - For either implanted or most in vitro medical signal detectors, it is necessary to wirelessly transmit the measured biomedical signal information to the relevant receiving unit. The most crucial component in a wireless transceiver is a frequency synthesizer, which must provide a wide range of bands of frequency and stable oscillation frequency. This chapter first introduces the basic principle of the integer N frequency synthesizer and the stability analysis of its linear model. Then, some key trade-offs when designing an integer-N frequency synthesizer are discussed, including the trade-offs among settling time, phase noise, and reference spurs. Next, each building block in the frequency synthesizer, including phase detector, charge pump, loop filter, oscillator, and frequency divider, are presented. In addition to the integer-N frequency synthesizer, we also briefly introduce the concept of non-integer frequency synthesizer, direct synthesizer, and all-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL). Finally we discuss in depth the two important units in ADPLL, digital-controlled oscillation (DCO) and time-to-digital conversion (TDC).

AB - For either implanted or most in vitro medical signal detectors, it is necessary to wirelessly transmit the measured biomedical signal information to the relevant receiving unit. The most crucial component in a wireless transceiver is a frequency synthesizer, which must provide a wide range of bands of frequency and stable oscillation frequency. This chapter first introduces the basic principle of the integer N frequency synthesizer and the stability analysis of its linear model. Then, some key trade-offs when designing an integer-N frequency synthesizer are discussed, including the trade-offs among settling time, phase noise, and reference spurs. Next, each building block in the frequency synthesizer, including phase detector, charge pump, loop filter, oscillator, and frequency divider, are presented. In addition to the integer-N frequency synthesizer, we also briefly introduce the concept of non-integer frequency synthesizer, direct synthesizer, and all-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL). Finally we discuss in depth the two important units in ADPLL, digital-controlled oscillation (DCO) and time-to-digital conversion (TDC).

KW - Accumulation-mode varactor

KW - All-digital phase-locked loop (ADPLL)

KW - CMOS

KW - Charge Pump

KW - Digital controlled oscillation (DCO)

KW - Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS)

KW - Frequency divider

KW - Integer-N PLL

KW - Inversion-mode varactor

KW - LC oscillator

KW - LC voltage-controlled oscillator

KW - Loop filter

KW - Phase detector

KW - Phase Locked Loop (PLL)

KW - Phase noise

KW - Pseudo-differential delay cells

KW - Reference spur

KW - Resolution bandwidth (RBW)

KW - Ring voltage-controlled oscillator

KW - Settling time

KW - Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC)

KW - Varactors

KW - Vernier TDC

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85121354309&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/978-3-030-88845-9_3

DO - 10.1007/978-3-030-88845-9_3

M3 - Chapter

AN - SCOPUS:85121354309

T3 - Analog Circuits and Signal Processing

SP - 55

EP - 110

BT - Analog Circuits and Signal Processing

PB - Springer

ER -