Recent studies have found that exosomes or extracellular vehicles (EVs) are associated with cancer metastasis, disease progression, diagnosis, and treatment, leading to a rapidly emerging area of exocrine vesicle research. Relying on the superior targeting function and bio-compatibility of exosomes, researchers have been able to deliver drugs to cancer stem cells deep within tumors in mouse models. Despite significant efforts made in this relatively new field of exosome research, progress has been held back by challenges such as inefficient separation methods, difficulties in characterization/tracking, and a lack of specific biomarkers. Therefore, current researches are devoted to combining nanomaterials with exosomes to improve these shortcomings. Adding inorganic/organic nanoparticles such as artificial liposomes and iron oxide can bring more drug options and various fluorescent or magnetic diagnostic possibilities to the exosome system. Moreover, the applications of exosomes need to be further evaluated under actual physiological conditions. This review article highlights the potential of exosome-biomimetic nanoparticles for their use as drug carriers to improve the efficacy of anticancer therapy.