Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1) is an RNA-binding protein and serves as a post-transcriptional fine-tuner regulating the expression of mRNA targets. However, the clinicopathological roles of IGF2BP1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains limited. Thus, we aimed to elucidate the clinical significance and biomarker potentials of IGF2BP1 in CRC. A total of 266 specimens from two sets of CRC patients were collected. IGF2BP1 expression was studied by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. The Kaplan-Meier survival plot and a log-rank test were used for survival analysis. The Cox proportional hazards model was applied to determine the survival impact of IGF2BP1. Public datasets sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and Human Cancer Metastasis Database (HCMDB), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) plotter, and two CRC cell lines, HCT-116 and DLD-1, were used for validating our findings. We showed that IGF2BP1 was overexpressed in tumor specimens compared to 13 paired normal parts by examining the immunoreactivity of IGF2BP1 (p = 0.045). The increased expression of IGF2BP1 in primary tumor parts was observed regardless of metastatic status (p < 0.001) in HCMDB analysis. IGF2BP1 expression was significantly associated with young age (59.6% vs. 46.7%, p-value = 0.043) and advanced stage (61.3% vs. 40.0%, p-value = 0.001). After controlling for confounding factors, IGF2BP1 remained an independent prognostic factor (HR = 1.705, p-value = 0.005). TCGA datasets analysis indicated that high IGF2BP1 expression showed a lower 5-year survival rate (58% vs. 65%) in CRC patients. The increased expression of IGF2BP1 in chemotherapy non-responder rectal cancer patients was observed using a ROC plotter. Overexpression of IGF2BP1 promoted the colony-forming capacity and 5-fluorouracil and etoposide resistance in CRC cells. Here, IGF2BP1 was an independent poor prognostic marker in CRC patients and contributed to aggressive phenotypes in CRC cell lines.