Leptospirosis, an emerging infectious disease caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp., occurs in ecoregions with heavy rainfall and has public health implications. Macrophages are the major anti-Leptospira phagocytes that infiltrate the kidneys during renal leptospirosis, which is caused by leptospires residing in the renal tubules. The pathogenicity of Leptospira spp. in immune effector cells such as macrophages is not well understood. To evaluate this pathogenesis, we characterized and compared the transcriptome-wide alterations in macrophages infected with pathogenic and nonpathogenic Leptospira spp. Using transcriptome data and quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis, at 2 h postinfection, the hypoxia-inducible factor-1a-dependent glycolysis pathway was implicated in pathogenic Leptospira-infected macrophages but not in nonpathogenic leptospiral infections. Immune-related biological processes were mostly activated in pathogenic Leptospira-infected macrophages, and flow cytometry investigations revealed that classically activated macrophages represent the predominant polarization status. At 24 h after infection, biological pathways associated with interleukin-10, IL-10, signaling the induction of macrophage tolerance, as well as higher levels of IL-10 mRNA and protein expression, were observed in nonpathogenic Leptospira-infected macrophages compared to in pathogenic leptospiral infection. Following leptospiral infection of macrophages, strong IL-10-expressing transcriptome signatures were observed following nonpathogenic leptospiral infection. The transcriptional programs generated in Leptospira-infected macrophages revealed an inflammatory milieu following the production of a critical anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, which is implicated in controlling the pathogenicity of activated macrophages. These findings imply that IL-10mediated anti-inflammatory responses and tolerance in activated macrophages induced by nonpathogenic Leptospira spp. infection reduce inflammation and tissue damage, thus providing a potential therapeutic target for leptospirosis. IMPORTANCE Activation of macrophages by Leptospira spp. infection is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis. To evaluate the innate macrophage responses to Leptospira spp., specifically pathogenic versus nonpathogenic Leptospira spp., we characterized the entire transcriptome-wide alterations in infected macrophages. We showed that hypoxia-inducible factor-1a and immune-related pathways are activated in pathogenic leptospiral-infected macrophages. We confirmed the significantly high levels of IL-10-expressing signatures and tolerance in activated macrophages caused by nonpathogenic Leptospira infection. Furthermore, nonpathogenic leptospiral infections attenuated macrophage activation responses. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic strategy for the immune microenvironment caused by macrophage activation driven by IL-10 overexpression, which may contribute to regulating inflammation in leptospirosis.