A novel scheme was developed for a diode-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YVO4/KGW Raman laser at 589 nm with a diode-to-orange conversion efficiency reaching 11.4%. The compact near-concentric cavity was designed to achieve the criterion of good passive Q-switching and to contain a coupled resonator for intracavity stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and second harmonic generation (SHG). The dependence of the output performance on the initial transmission of the saturable absorber was explored in detail. Furthermore, the output performance was studied by considering the influence of the pump-to-mode size ratio. By using an initial transmission of 50%, the highest pulse energy and peak power were 110 μJ and 118 kW, respectively, at a pump duration of 40 μs and a pump frequency of 10 kHz.