Tumor metastasis or recurrence often occurs in patients with curative resection of colorectal cancer (CRC). Placental-specific 8 (PLAC8), which has increased expression in stool, may be associated with CRC recurrence. Insights into the role of PLAC8 in CRC recurrence and its clinical significance may support to develop strategies for preventing CRC recurrence and deterioration. Clinical tissues, cell and animal models were used to clarify the roles of PLAC8 in CRC tumorigenesis, invasion, and migration. Next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA has been used to assess the gut microbiota in stool of CRC patients. We found that PLAC8 was upregulated in tissues from patients with late-stage CRC. In our in vitro studies, PLAC8 was dynamically regulated in mitotic cells. Overexpressed PLAC8 was nucleated at the centrosome during mitosis, and therefore, PLAC8 overexpression might increase cell growth and migration (all p < 0.05). The tumorigenic and invasive effects of PLAC8 on CRC cells were also confirmed in a xenograft mouse model. We further identified reduced levels of two butyrate-producing organisms, Butyricicoccus and Prevotella spp., in stools from CRC patients. We found that butyrate downregulated PLAC8 expression and induced apoptosis in PLAC8-overexpressing cells. Our data suggests that PLAC8 gene and protein expression and dysbiosis of gut microflora, especially in butyrate-producing microorganisms, may be indicators of CRC progression.