Objective: Patients diagnosed of DeBakey type III aortic dissection with partial thrombosis of false lumen (FL) have a higher mortality rate. However, IIIb dissections with full patent FL tend to exhibit a partially thrombosed FL quickly after thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR); thus, we investigated survival and aortic remodeling in this population. Methods: We reviewed computed tomography aortograms (CTAs) of 123 patients with TEVAR-treated IIIb aortic dissections from July 2006 to June 2015; contrast density of CTAs represented intraluminal flow. Patients were selected to fit in 2 groups of FL in term of FL contrast density: low flow (LF) group (non-opacification in the midway of FL) and high flow (HF) group (full patent FL). Results: Surgical mortality was 10.3% in the HF group and 4.5% in the LF group (n = 61; LF = 22; HF = 39). 3 patients in the HF group suffered from lethal aortic rupture in 10 days postoperatively. The HF group showed significant increase in maximal diameter, and had larger thoracic (+4.00 ± 2.68 vs −1.16 ± 3.42 mm, P < .001) aortic diameter expansion from preoperation to one week postoperation. Both groups exhibited significant favorable thoracic TL expansion and maximal aortic diameter shrinkage in postoperative one week to one year. However, HF group displayed less thoracic aortic FL regression (−70.9 ± 83.5 vs −113.9 ± 95.0 cm3, P = .1) and TL expansion (+14.5 ± 27.2 vs +36.8 ± 28.3 cm3, P = .008) when compared to LF group. Conclusions: Preoperative HF in the FL has an unfavorable effect on thoracic aortic diameter in one week post-TEVAR. This might increase the risk of aortic rupture.