Open-air burning of rice straw (RS) on sites after harvesting produces tremendous amounts of air pollutants in Southeast Asia. Additionally, cooking oil smoke (COS) from high-temperature frying is classified as “Probably carcinogenic to humans” (Group 2A) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. To mitigate the air pollution from COS, RS was recycled to prepare activated carbon (AC), which was used as a bed filter (BF) packing material for COS removal, and to our best knowledge, this study is the first one. Besides, a negative air ionizer (NAI) was firstly utilized to enhance the removal efficiency (η) of COS particles. Other biomass waste, including tea leaves (TL), wood dust (WD), rice hulls (RH), and coffee grounds (CG), were also used as packing materials for comparison. Specific surface area and pore volume of the packing materials were determined by nitrogen adsorption/desorption isothermal. Laser airborne particle counters and volatile organic compound (VOC) monitors (photoionization detector) were utilized for real-time recording of the particle and VOC concentration of COS. Economic assessments for the control of COS was also conducted. For submicron particles, the removal efficiency of the BFs ranged from 0 to 98% and the AC filter had the highest quality factor. The NAI remarkably enhanced the η value and filter quality factor. For the removal of particles larger than 2.5 μm, all BFs had η > 96%. The removal efficiency of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (ηVOC) of the test BFs ranged from 18.22 to 90.8%. The AC filter had the largest pore volume (0.432 cm3/g) and surface area (877 m2/g) among all packing materials, causing this filter to have the highest ηVOC and adsorption capacity (over 28.3 mg-VOCs/g-AC). The annual operating costs of the TL, WD, RH, CG, and AC filters were 319.4, 23.3, 29.1, 189.4, and 62.9 US$, respectively. Therefore, using RS to prepare an AC bed filter for the removal of COS is a practical and sustainable strategy for COS control.