Objective: This study investigated factors associated with the referral compliance of positive immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT). Setting: Data were from a subset of people who received iFOBT at Taipei county of Taiwan in 2005. Methods: All subjects with positive iFOBT were referred to hospital for further diagnostic examinations. In total, 226 such subjects who did not accept referral within 60 days were identified as the non-compliant group from the record of Public Health Bureau. Frequency-matched 219 subjects were sampled from the 599 people who accepted referral within 60 days as the compliant group. Telephone interviews were performed according to questionnaire designed basically under the Health Belief Model. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess effects of possible associated factors for referral compliance. Results: A total of 145 persons in the compliant group and 115 persons in the non-compliant group completed the interview. Factors including 'perceived susceptibility' and 'cue to action: information' were positively associated with, while 'casual personality' was negatively associated with referral compliance. Conclusions: Three factors in Health Belief Model were associated with referral compliance after positive FOBT.