Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the effect on medical resource use and mortality of full financial support from the government for treatment costs after a mass burn casualty event in Taiwan. Methods: All patients with burn injuries from the event were included (n = 483). Each burn patient from this incident was matched to a separate burn patient identified from the National Health Insurance database. Medical care usage and mortality were compared between groups at 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month intervals. Results: Regarding outpatient expenditure, burn patients from the mass casualty event had significantly higher levels of medical expenditure compared with their control counterparts at all intervals and levels of medical institution. For inpatient expenditure, patients from the mass casualty event only had higher expenditure for the first month, and excess procedures used by these patients mainly consisted of nonvital procedures such as rehabilitation training. The mortality rate was only slightly lower for this group of burn patients compared with their control counterparts. Conclusions: Full financial support by the government in terms of medical treatment may engender only marginal additional benefits in terms of mortality if burn treatment procedures are already well established in the country.