Ultrasound is a method for enhancing neurite outgrowth because of its thermal effect. In order to reach the working temperature to enhance neurite outgrowth, long-time treatment by ultrasound is necessary, while acknowledging that the treatment poses a high risk of damaging nerve cells. To overcome this problem, we developed a method that shortens the ultrasonic treatment time with a warming biomaterial. In this study, we used Fe3O4 nanoparticle-embedded polycaprolactone (PCL) as a sonosensitized biomaterial, which has an excellent heating rate due to its high acoustic attenuation. With this material, the ultrasonic treatment time for enhancing neurite outgrowth could be effectively shortened. Ultrasonic treatment could also increase neuronal function combined with the warming biomaterial, with more promoter neuronal function than only ultrasound. Moreover, the risk of overexposure can be avoided by the use of the warming biomaterial by reducing the ultrasonic treatment time, providing better effectiveness.