During injured tissue regeneration, the extracellular matrix plays a key role in controlling and coordinating various cellular events by binding and releasing secreted proteins in addition to promoting cell adhesion. Herein, we develop a cell-adhesive fiber-forming peptide that mimics the jigsaw-shaped hydrophobic surface in the dovetail-packing motif of glycophorin A as an artificial extracellular matrix for regenerative therapy. We show that the jigsaw-shaped self-assembling peptide forms several-micrometer-long supramolecular nanofibers through a helix-to-strand transition to afford a hydrogel under physiological conditions and disperses homogeneously in the hydrogel. The molecular- and macro-scale supramolecular properties of the jigsaw-shaped self-assembling peptide hydrogel allow efficient incorporation and sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor, and demonstrate cell transplantation-free regenerative therapeutic effects in a subacute-chronic phase mouse stroke model. This research highlights a therapeutic strategy for injured tissue regeneration using the jigsaw-shaped self-assembling peptide supramolecular hydrogel.