Unilateral radiotherapy (RT) as a postoperative treatment for multiple ipsilateral lymph node (LN) metastases remains controversial. We investigated the efficacy of postoperative unilateral RT for buccal mucosa squamous cell carcinoma (BMSCC) with extranodal extensions (ENEs). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 186 patients with ENE+ BMSCC who received postoperative RT during 1997–2016. Propensity score matching was used to establish comparable cohorts. The endpoints were contralateral nodal control (CLNC), overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), local control (LC), and regional control (RC). After matching, 123 patients were selected for analysis; 45 (36.6%) and 78 (63.4%) patients underwent unilateral and bilateral RT, respectively. The median follow-up was 36.27 months. The survival outcomes in the unilateral and bilateral RT groups were similar: 3-year CLNC (85.6% vs. 89.1%, p = 0.748), OS (53.2% vs. 57.4%, p = 0.229), DFS (46.5% vs. 48.6%, p = 0.515), DMFS (70.7% vs. 72.0%, p = 0.499), LC (78.0% vs. 75.6%, p = 0.692), and RC (79.9% vs. 76.2%, p = 0.465). On multivariable Cox regression analysis, unilateral and bilateral RT showed comparable outcomes; the number of ENEs ≥ 4 was the only significant prognostic factor for all clinical outcomes. Using decision tree analysis, we classified our patients to have a low, intermediate, or high risk of contralateral failure based on three factors: number of ENEs, margin status, and tumor stage. In conclusion, postoperative unilateral RT did not worsen outcomes in patients with ENE+ BMSCC in this cohort. The decision tree model may assist physicians in optimizing and tailoring radiation fields.