BACKGROUND: Cases of breastfeeding- and breast-milk-related jaundice tend to increase with increased rates of breastfeeding. Diagnoses of jaundice often lead mothers to discontinue breastfeeding because of assumptions that breastfeeding may exacerbate neonatal jaundice and lengthen the duration of phototherapy treatment. PURPOSE: This study was designed to explore the effect of neonatal jaundice on breastfeeding duration and exclusivity during the first 4 months postpartum. METHODS: This study applied a two-group comparative and follow-up design. The two groups comprised 135 and 160 mothers of infants, respectively, with and without neonatal jaundice. All of the participants were recruited from three certified baby-friendly hospitals in northern Taiwan. Follow-up was conducted by telephone at 1 and 4 months postpartum. RESULTS: Mean breastfeeding duration was longer in the group of participants whose infants had neonatal jaundice (group with neonatal jaundice) than in the group whose infants did not have this condition (group without neonatal jaundice; 102.00 vs. 89.85 days, p = .007). The degree of breastfeeding was higher in the group with neonatal jaundice, although the difference was significant only at 1 month postpartum and not during hospitalization or at 4 months postpartum. The results of a Cox regression model showed that the group without neonatal jaundice was more likely to discontinue breastfeeding (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.68, 95% CI [1.08, 2.62]). A generalized estimating equation model suggests that infants with neonatal jaundice had a higher likelihood of being breastfed for at least half of their feedings (adjusted OR = 1.53, 95% CI [1.04, 2.25]). CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of the results of this study, neonatal jaundice is not an obstacle to breastfeeding in pro-breastfeeding hospital environments. Participants whose infants developed neonatal jaundice were found in this study to breastfeed more often, which promotes breastfeeding success.