Diamond electrodes have long been a well-known candidate in electrochemical analyte detection. Nano-and micro-level modifications on the diamond electrodes can lead to diverse analytical applications. Doping of crystalline diamond allows the fabrication of suitable electrodes towards specific analyte monitoring. In particular, boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes have been reported for metal ions, anions, biomolecules, drugs, beverage hazards, pesticides, organic molecules, dyes, growth stimulant, etc., with exceptional performance in discriminations. Therefore, numerous reviews on the diamond electrode-based sensory utilities towards the specified analyte quantifications were published by many researchers. However, reviews on the nanodiamond-based electrodes for metal ions and anions are still not readily available nowadays. To advance the development of diamond electrodes towards the detection of diverse metal ions and anions, it is essential to provide clear and focused information on the diamond electrode synthesis, structure, and electrical properties. This review provides indispensable information on the diamond-based electrodes towards the determination of metal ions and anions.