Defect engineering represents a significant approach for atomically thick 2D semiconductor material development to explore the unique material properties and functions. Doping-induced conversion of conductive polarity is particularly beneficial for optimizing the integration of layered electronics. Here, controllable doping behavior in palladium diselenide (PdSe2) transistor is demonstrated by manipulating its adatom-vacancy groups. The underlying mechanisms, which originate from reversible adsorption/desorption of oxygen clusters near selenide vacancy defects, are investigated systematically via their dynamic charge transfer characteristics and scanning tunneling microscope analysis. The modulated doping effect allows the PdSe2 transistor to emulate the essential characteristics of photo nociceptor on a device level, including firing signal threshold and sensitization. Interestingly, electrostatic gating, acting as a neuromodulator, can regulate the adaptive modes in nociceptor to improve its adaptability and perceptibility to handle different danger levels. An integrated artificial nociceptor array is also designed to execute unique image processing functions, which suggests a new perspective for extension of the promise of defect engineered 2D electronics in simplified sensory systems toward use in advanced humanoid robots and artificial visual sensors.