Due to the implementation of the National Health Insurance system in 1995, the number of patients receiving maintenance dialysis has increased rapidly. This contributed to Taiwan to be in an unfortunate position of possessing the highest prevalence of end-stage renal disease globally. Although the age-standardized incidence of end-stage renal disease gradually decreased to −1.1% in 2014, the huge economic burden that comes with dialysis is detrimental to the quality of dialysis treatment. To achieve a balance between economy and quality of care requires multidisciplinary cooperation. Through a variety of chronic kidney disease–related care projects, we have gradually reversed this situation and achieved good results. Further promotion of kidney transplantation and hospice care for terminal patients will improve the situation. With respect to vascular access, the “fistula first” policy is carried out and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is the mainstay of treatment to resolve vascular access dysfunction. The medical expenses for dialysis and vascular access management are both fully paid for by the National Health Insurance, and patients do not have to worry about the medical expenses. However, the statistics and vascular access monitoring are relatively insufficient in the past. The comprehensive integration of vascular access management into public policy related to kidney disease will complete the missing piece of the puzzle of overall care.